Chapter 1 - Section 9


     Public speaking is an important, and some may contend essential, part of communication. It is an inescapable part of modern life, and an essential component of both leadership and good citizenship. The following chapters will provide the necessary details to help you better learn, understand, and practice the essential elements of effective public speaking. For additional information and visual example on the foundation of public speaking, visit:


Aristotle. (1991). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. George Kennedy (trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ballif, M. & Moran, M.G. (Eds.). (2005). Classical rhetorics and rhetoricians: Critical studies and sources. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Bizzell, P. & Herzberg, B. (2000). The rhetorical tradition: Readings from classical times to the present (2nd ed.). New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.

Bitzer, L. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 1, 1-15.

Brewer, G. (2001). Snakes top list of Americans’ fears. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from

Brummett, B. (2006). Rhetoric in popular culture 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Burke, K (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Gwynn, A. (1926). Roman education from Cicero to Quintilian. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hawhee, D. & Crowley, S. (2008). Ancient rhetorics for contemporary students. New York: Longman.

Lentz, T. M. (1989). Orality and literacy in hellenic Greece. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

May, J.M. (2002). Brill’s companion to Cicero: Oratory and rhetoric. Boston: Brill Leiden.

Morgan, M. (2003). Presentational speaking. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Rebhorn, W. A. (Ed.). (2000). Renaissance debates on rhetoric. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Vatz, R. E. (1973). The myth of the rhetorical situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 6, 154-157.

Suggested Websites (2009) (2007) (Riggio, 2011).


Section 8